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Wazi ntoni malunga neeplastiki eziguqulweyo?

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Note: Kukwimeko yolwelo ngexesha lokuvelisa kunye nokulungiselela ukuhambisa imodeli, Inika imilo eqinileyo xa kugqityiwe ukwenziwa.

Iplastiki yinto enepolymer ephezulu njengeyona nto iphambili. Iqukethe i-resin synthetic kunye ne-fillers, i-plasticizers, i-stabilizers, i-lubricants, i-pigment kunye nezinye izongezo. Kukwimeko yolwelo ngexesha lokuvelisa kunye nokulungiselela ukuhambisa imodeli, Inika imilo eqinileyo xa kugqityiwe ukwenziwa.

Icandelo ephambili zeplastiki - nentlaka zokwenziwa. IiReins ekuqaleni zazithiywe ngee lipids ezifihliweyo zizilwanyana nezityalo, ezifana ne-rosin, i-shellac, njl. Njl. I-resin i-akhawunti malunga ne-40% ukuya kwi-100% yobunzima bebonke beplastiki. Iipropathi ezisisiseko zeplastiki ikakhulu zimiselwe ziipropathi zentlaka, kodwa izongezo zikwadlala indima ebalulekileyo.



Kutheni le nto iplastiki kufuneka iguqulwe?


Oko kubizwa ngokuba "kukuguqulwa kweplastiki" kubhekisa kwindlela yokutshintsha ukusebenza kwayo kwasekuqaleni kunye nokuphucula imeko enye nangaphezulu ngokongeza enye okanye ezingaphezulu izinto kwi-resin yeplastiki, ngaloo ndlela kufezekiswa injongo yokwandisa ububanzi bayo besicelo. Izinto zeplastiki eziguqulweyo ngokudibeneyo zibizwa ngokuba yi "plastiki eguqulweyo".

Ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, uphando kunye nophuhliso lweplastikhi yeshishini leekhemikhali lihlanganise amawaka eemathiriyeli zepolymer, ezingaphezulu kwe-100 kuphela ezinexabiso kwimizi-mveliso. Ngaphezulu kwe-90% yemathiriyeli yentlaka exhaphakileyo isetyenziswa kwiiplastikhi kugxilwe kwii-resin ezintlanu ngokubanzi (i-PE, i-PP, i-PVC, i-PS, i-ABS) Okwangoku, kunzima kakhulu ukuqhubeka nokuhlanganisa inani elikhulu lezinto zepolymer ezintsha, ayilondolozi kwaye ayinyani.

Ke ngoko, isifundo esinzulu sobudlelwane phakathi kolwakhiwo lwepolymer, ulwakhiwo kunye nokusebenza, kunye nokulungiswa kweeplastikhi esele zikhona kwesi sizathu, ukuvelisa izinto ezifanelekileyo zeplastiki, ibe yenye yeendlela ezisebenzayo zokuphuhlisa ishishini leplastikhi. Umzi mveliso weplastikhi yezesondo nawo ufeze inkqubela ebonakalayo kwiminyaka yakutshanje.

Ukulungiswa kweplastiki kubhekisa ekutshintsheni iipropathi zezinto zeplastiki kwicala elilindelwe ngabantu ngokwasemzimbeni, imichiza okanye zombini iindlela, okanye ukunciphisa kakhulu iindleko, okanye ukuphucula iipropathi ezithile, okanye ukunika iiplastikhi imisebenzi emitsha yezixhobo. Inkqubo yokulungiswa inokwenzeka ngexesha lokumodareyitha kwe-resin eyenziweyo, oko kukuthi, ukuguqulwa kwamachiza, njengokukopishwa komgubo, ukufakelwa, ukudibanisa, njl njl, kungenziwa kwakhona ngexesha lokulungiswa kwentlaka yokwenziwa, oko kukuthi, ukuguqulwa komzimba, ukuzalisa, ukudibanisa, ukudibanisa, njl.

Zeziphi iindlela zokuguqulwa kweplastiki?

1.Ukugcwalisa ukuguqulwa (ukugcwaliswa kwezimbiwa)

Ngokongeza umgubo (i-organic) umgubo kwiiplastikhi eziqhelekileyo, ukuqina, ubulukhuni kunye nobushushu bokumelana nezinto zeplastiki kungaphuculwa. Zininzi iintlobo zeefilitha kwaye iipropathi zazo zinzima kakhulu.

Indima yeeflastic fillers: ukuphucula ukusebenza kweplastiki, ukuphucula iipropati zomzimba kunye neekhemikhali, ukwandisa ivolumu kunye nokunciphisa iindleko.

Izidingo zezongezo zeplastiki:

(1) Iipropathi zemichiza azisebenzi, zingenile, kwaye azisabeli kakubi kwintlaka kunye nezinye izongezo;

(2) Ayichaphazeli ukumelana namanzi, ukumelana neekhemikhali, ukumelana nemozulu, ukumelana nobushushu, njl.

(3) Ngaba ukunciphisa iipropati ebonakalayo zeplastiki;

(4) Unokugcwaliswa ngesixa esikhulu;

(5) Ukuxinana kwesihlobo kuncinci kwaye kunefuthe elincinci kukuxinana kwemveliso.

2. Ukulungiswa okuphuculweyo (iglasi yefayibha / ifayibha yekhabhoni)

Amanyathelo okuqinisa: ngokongeza izinto ezinemicu efana neglasi yefayibha kunye nekhabhoni.

Impembelelo yokuphucula: inokuphucula kakhulu ukuqina, amandla, ubunzima, kunye nokuchasana nobushushu bezinto,

Iziphumo ezibi zokuguqulwa: Kodwa izinto ezininzi ziya kubangela umphezulu ongalunganga kunye nobude obusezantsi kwikhefu.

Umgaqo wokuphucula:

(1) Izinto eziqinisiweyo zinamandla aphezulu kunye neemodyuli;

(2) I-Resin inezinto ezininzi ezibalaseleyo zomzimba kunye neekhemikhali (ukumelana ne-corrosion, i-insulation, i-radiation, ukumelana nokunyuka kweqondo lokushisa, njl.

(3) Emva kokuba intlaka ixutywe kunye nezinto zokuqinisa, izinto zokuqinisa zinokuphucula umatshini okanye ezinye iipropathi zentlaka, kwaye i-resin ingadlala indima yokubopha kunye nokuhambisa umthwalo kwinto yokuqinisa, ukuze iplastiki eqinisiweyo iipropathi ezigqwesileyo.

3. Ukulungiswa kokubamba

Izinto ezininzi azinzima ngokwaneleyo kwaye zinzima kakhulu. Ngokudibanisa izinto ngobulukhuni obungcono okanye izinto ze-ultrafine ezingaphiliyo, ubunzima kunye nokusebenza kobushushu obusezantsi bezinto kunokunyuswa.

Arhente Toughening: Ukuze kuncitshiswe brittleness yeplastiki emva lukhuni, nokuphucula amandla ayo ifuthe kunye nobude, isongezelelo ongezwe nentlaka.

Iarhente yokuqinisa edla ngokusetyenziswa rhoqo-ubukhulu becala i-anhydride grafting compatibilizer:

I-Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA)

I-Polyolefin elastomer (POE)

I-Polyethylene Ekhiqiziwe (CPE)

I-Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS)

I-Styrene-butadiene thermoplastic elastomer (SBS)

I-EPDM (EPDM)

4.Ukulungiswa kwe-Flame retardant (i-halogen-free flame retardant)

Ezimbonini eziningi ezinjengezinto zikagesi kanye nezimoto, izinto zokwakha ziyadingeka ukuthi zingabeki ilangabi, kepha izinto eziningi zepulasitiki ezisetshenziswayo zinokubuyiselwa emuva kwelangabi. Ukuthuthuka kwelangabi okungcono kungatholakala ngokungeza amalangabi omlilo.

Ama-Flame retardants: aziwa nangokuthi ama-flame retardants, ama-fire retardants noma ama-fire retardants, izithasiselo ezisebenzayo ezinikeza ukubuyisela emuva ilangabi kuma-polymers avuthayo; iningi lazo i-VA (phosphorus), i-VIIA (i-bromine, i-chlorine) nama-compounds wezinto ze-ⅢA (antimony, aluminium).

Amakhemikhali e-Molybdenum, ama-tin compounds, kanye ne-iron compounds enemiphumela yokunciphisa umusi nakho kungokwesigaba sama-retardants amalangabi. Zisetshenziselwa ikakhulukazi amapulasitiki anezidingo zokubuyisela ilangabi ukubambezela noma ukuvimbela ukushiswa kwamapulasitiki, ikakhulukazi amapulasitiki e-polymer. Yenze ibe yinde ukukhanyisa, ukuzicisha, futhi kube nzima ukukushisa.

Ilangabi plastic cishe yizona ezisetshenziswa kabanzi grade: kusukela HB, V-2, V-1, V-0, 5VB ukuze 5VA igxathu negxathu.

5. Ukuguqulwa kwesimo sezulu (ukulwa nokuguga, i-anti-ultraviolet, ukumelana nokushisa okuphansi)

Ngokuvamile kubhekiswa ekumelaneni okubandayo kwepulasitiki emazingeni okushisa aphansi. Ngenxa yobuncane bokushisa obuphansi kwamapulasitiki, amapulasitiki aqala ukubheda emazingeni okushisa aphansi. Ngakho-ke, imikhiqizo eminingi epulasitiki esetshenziswa ezindaweni ezinamazinga okushisa aphansi imvamisa iyadingeka ukuthi ibe nokumelana namakhaza.

Ukumelana nesimo sezulu: kubhekisa ochungechungeni lwezimo zokuguga njengokufiphala, ukushintsha kombala, ukuqhekeka, ukumaka, nokuncipha kwamandla kwemikhiqizo yepulasitiki ngenxa yethonya lezimo zangaphandle ezifana nokukhanya kwelanga, ukushintsha kwezinga lokushisa, umoya nemvula. Imisebe ye-Ultraviolet iyisici esibalulekile ekukhuthazeni ukuguga kwepulasitiki.

6. Ingxubevange eshintshiwe

Ingxubevange yePulasitiki ukusetshenziswa kokuxubana ngokomzimba noma kokuxhunyelelwa kwamakhemikhali nezindlela zokwenziwa kwamakhemikhali ukulungiselela izinto ezimbili noma ngaphezulu zibe yinto ephezulu yokusebenza, esebenzayo, futhi ekhethekile yokwenza ngcono ukusebenza kwento eyodwa noma zibe nakho kokubili inhloso yezinto ezibonakalayo. Ingathuthukisa noma ithuthukise ukusebenza kwamapulasitiki akhona futhi yehlise izindleko.

Ama-alloys ejwayelekile epulasitiki: njenge-PVC, i-PE, i-PP, ama-alloys we-PS asetshenziswa kabanzi, futhi ubuchwepheshe bokukhiqiza buye babonwa kahle.

Ingxubevange yeplastiki yobunjiniyela: ibhekisa enhlanganisweni yamaplastiki wobunjiniyela (i-resin), ikakhulukazi kufaka phakathi uhlelo lokuxubana ne-PC, i-PBT, i-PA, i-POM (i-polyoxymethylene), i-PPO, i-PTFE (i-polytetrafluoroethylene) namanye amapulasitiki wobunjiniyela njengomzimba omkhulu, ne-resin ye-ABS izinto eziguquliwe.

Izinga lokukhula lokusetshenziswa kwe-PC / ABS alloy liphambili emkhakheni wepulasitiki. Njengamanje, ucwaningo lwe-PC / ABS alloying lube yindawo yokucwaninga yama-alloys e-polymer.

7. I-Zirconium phosphate epulasitiki eguquliwe

1) Ukulungiswa kwe-polypropylene PP / organic modified zirconium phosphate OZrP composite by melt blending method and its application in engineering plastics

Okokuqala, i-octadecyl dimethyl tertiary amine (DMA) iyenziwa nge-α-zirconium phosphate ukuthola i-zirconium phosphate (OZrP) eguqulwe ngokwenziwe, bese i-OZrP incibilika ixutshwe ne-polypropylene (PP) ukulungiselela inhlanganisela ye-PP / OZrP. Lapho i-OZrP inengxenyana yesisindo esingu-3% ingezwa, amandla okuqina, amandla okuthelela, namandla e-flexural we-PP / OZrP composite angakhuphuka ngo-18.2%, 62. 5%, no-11.3%, ngokulandelana, kuqhathaniswa okumsulwa PP impahla. Ukuzinza okushisayo nakho kuthuthukiswe kakhulu. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi umkhawulo owodwa we-DMA uhlangana nezinto ezingaphili ukuze wakhe isibopho samakhemikhali, kanti omunye umkhawulo weketanga elide ubhajwe ngokomzimba ne-PP yamangqamuzana wamangqamuzana ukukhulisa ukuqina kwento ehlanganisiwe. Amandla womthelela athuthukisiwe nokuzinza okushisayo kungenxa ye-zirconium phosphate eyenzelwe i-PP ukukhiqiza β amakristalu. Okwesibili, ukuxhumana phakathi kwe-PP eguquliwe nezendlalelo ze-zirconium phosphate kwandisa ibanga phakathi kwezendlalelo ze-zirconium phosphate nokusabalalisa okungcono, okuholela ekukhuleni kwamandla okugoba. Lobu buchwepheshe busiza ukuthuthukisa ukusebenza kwamaplastiki wobunjiniyela.

2) I-Polyvinyl alcohol / i-α-zirconium phosphate nanocomposite nokusetshenziswa kwayo ezintweni ezisebenza ngamalangabi

I-Polyvinyl alcohol / i-α-zirconium phosphate nanocomposites ingasetshenziselwa ukulungiselela izinto ezilahla ilangabi. indlela yile:

Okokuqala, indlela ye-reflux isetshenziselwa ukulungiselela i-α-zirconium phosphate.

CcNgokuya kwesilinganiso esiqinile samanzi esingu-100 mL / g, thatha ubungako be-α-zirconium phosphate powder bese uyihlakaza emanzini angenawo amandla, engeza isisombululo se-ethylamine aqueous dropwise ngaphansi kokunyakazisa kukazibuthe ekamelweni lokushisa, bese ufaka i-diethanolamine eningi, bese ulapha nge-ultrasonically ukulungiselela i-ZrP -OH Isixazululo samanzi.

IssYichitha inani elithile le-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) kwi-90 water deionized water ukwenza isisombululo se-5%, yongeza isisombululo esinamandla se-ZrP-OH, qhubeka ushukumisa iiyure ezi-6 ukuya kwezi-10, upholise isisombululo kwaye usigalele kumbumba umoya owomileyo kwiqondo lobushushu begumbi, ifilimu encinci emalunga ne-0.15 mm inokwenziwa.

Ukongezwa kwe-ZrP-OH kunciphisa ngokubonakalayo ubushushu bokuqala bokuthotywa kwePVA, kwaye kwangaxeshanye kunceda ukukhuthaza ukusabela kwekhabhoni kwiimveliso zokuthotywa kwePVA. Kungenxa yokuba ipolyanion eveliswe ngexesha lokuthotywa kwe-ZrP-OH isebenza njengendawo ye-asidi yeproton yokukhuthaza ukusabela kokucheba kweqela le-PVA acid ngokuphendula kwe-Norrish II. Ukuphendulwa kwekhabhoni kwiimveliso zokuthotywa kwePVA kuphucula ukumelana neoksijini yomaleko wekhabhoni, ngaloo ndlela kuphuculwa ukusebenza kwelangatye okubuyisela umva kwemathiriyeli edityanisiweyo.

3) I-Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) / isitashi esine-oxidized / α-zirconium phosphate nanocomposite kunye nendima yayo ekuphuculeni iipropathi zoomatshini.

I-Α-Zirconium phosphate yahlanganiswa yindlela ye-sol-gel reflux, ehlengahlengiswe ngokwasemzimbeni nge-n-butylamine, kunye ne-OZrP kunye ne-PVA zadityaniswa ukulungiselela i-PVA / α-ZrP nanocomposite. Ukuphucula ngokufanelekileyo iipropati zoomatshini bezinto ezidibeneyo. Xa i-matrix ye-PVA iqulethe i-0.8% ngokobunzima be-α-ZrP, amandla oqiniseko kunye nobude ekuphuleni kwezinto ezidityanisiweyo zonyuswa nge-17.3% kunye nama-26. Xa kuthelekiswa ne-PVA emsulwa, ngokwahlukeneyo. 6%. Kungenxa yokuba i-α-ZrP hydroxyl inokuvelisa ukubopha ngamandla kwe-hydrogen kunye ne-starch molecular hydroxyl, ekhokelela ekuphuculeni iipropathi zoomatshini. Kwangelo xesha, uzinzo olushushu luyonyuswa kakhulu.

4) I-Polystyrene / i-organic modified zirconium phosphate izinto ezidibeneyo kunye nokusetyenziswa kwayo kubushushu obuphezulu bokulungiswa kwezinto ze-nanocomposite

I-α-Zirconium phosphate (α-ZrP) ixhaswe kwangaphambili yi-methylamine (MA) ukufumana isisombululo se-MA-ZrP, emva koko isisombululo se-p-chloromethyl styrene (DMA-CMS) esidityanisiweyo songezwa kwisisombululo se-MA-ZrP kwaye sishukunyiswe ubushushu begumbi 2 d, imveliso ihluziwe, eziqinileyo zihlanjwa ngamanzi acociweyo ukuze kungabikho klorini, kwaye zomiswe kwisithubase-80 ℃ nge-24 h. Okokugqibela, ukudityaniswa kulungiselelwe ngobuninzi bepolmerization. Ngexesha le-polymerization eninzi, inxenye ye-styrene ingena phakathi kwe-zirconium phosphate laminates, kwaye impendulo ye-polymerization iyenzeka. Ukuzinza kwe-thermal kwemveliso kuphuculwe kakhulu, ukuhambelana nomzimba wepolymer kubhetele, kwaye kuya kukhawulelana neemfuno zokulungiswa kobushushu obuphezulu bezinto ze-nanocomposite.

 
 
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