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Dziwani zambiri zamapulasitiki osinthidwa

Enlarged font  Narrow font Release date:2021-02-26  Browse number:374
Note: Pulasitiki ndichinthu chokhala ndi polima yayikulu ngati gawo lalikulu. Amapangidwa ndi utomoni wopangira komanso zodzaza, zopangira pulasitiki, zotetezera, zotsekemera, inki ndi zina zowonjezera.

1. Chiyambi cha mawu oti "utomoni"

Pulasitiki ndichinthu chokhala ndi polima yayikulu ngati gawo lalikulu. Amapangidwa ndi utomoni wopangira komanso zodzaza, zopangira pulasitiki, zotetezera, zotsekemera, inki ndi zina zowonjezera. Ili m'malo amadzimadzi popanga ndi kukonza kuti zithandizire kutengera, Zimakhala zolimba pakamaliza ntchitoyo. Gawo lalikulu la pulasitiki ndi utomoni wopanga. Resins amatchulidwa kale ndi ma lipids obisidwa ndi nyama ndi zomera, monga rosin, shellac, ndi zina zotero. Zipangizo zopangira (zomwe nthawi zina zimangotchedwa "resins") zimatanthauza ma polima omwe sanasakanikirane ndi zowonjezera zina. Utomoni umakhala pafupifupi 40% mpaka 100% ya kulemera konse kwa pulasitiki. Zomwe zimapangidwira pulasitiki zimakhazikitsidwa makamaka ndi utomoni, koma zowonjezera zimathandizanso.

2. Chifukwa chiyani mapulasitiki ayenera kusinthidwa?

Zomwe zimatchedwa "kusinthidwa kwa pulasitiki" zimatanthauza njira yowonjezerapo chinthu chimodzi kapena zingapo kupulatifomu ya pulasitiki kuti isinthe magwiridwe ake apachiyambi, kukonza mbali imodzi kapena zingapo, potero zimakwaniritsa cholinga chokulitsa kuchuluka kwa ntchito. Zipangizo zosinthidwa za pulasitiki zimatchedwa "mapulasitiki osinthidwa".

Mpaka pano, kafukufuku ndi chitukuko cha mafakitale am'mapulasitiki apanga zida zambirimbiri za polima, zomwe zoposa 100 zokha ndizofunika m'mafakitale. Zoposa 90% yazinthu zopangira utomoni zopangira pulasitiki zimakhazikika m'matumba asanu (PE, PP, PVC, PS, ABS) Pakadali pano, ndizovuta kwambiri kupitiriza kupanga zinthu zambiri zatsopano za polima, zomwe sizochuma kapena zenizeni.

Chifukwa chake, kuphunzira mozama za ubale wapakati polima, kapangidwe kake ndi magwiridwe ake, ndikusinthidwa kwa mapulasitiki omwe alipo kale pamaziko awa, kuti apange zida zatsopano za pulasitiki, yakhala imodzi mwanjira zothandiza zopangira makina apulasitiki. Makampani opanga mapulasitiki ogonana nawonso akwaniritsa chitukuko chachikulu m'zaka zaposachedwa.

Kusintha kwa pulasitiki kumatanthauza kusintha kwa zinthu za pulasitiki m'njira yomwe anthu amayembekezera kudzera munjira, mankhwala kapena njira zonse ziwiri, kapena kuchepetsa kwambiri mtengo, kapena kukonza zinthu zina, kapena kupereka mapulasitiki Ntchito yatsopano yazinthuzo. Njira zosinthira zimatha kuchitika pakapangidwe ka utomoni wopangira, ndiye kuti, kusinthidwa kwa mankhwala, monga copolymerization, kulumikiza, kulumikiza, ndi zina zambiri, zitha kuchitidwanso pokonza utomoni wopanga, ndiko kuti, kusintha kwa thupi, monga kudzaza ndikuphatikizira polima. Kusakaniza, kuwonjezera, ndi zina. Yankhani "pulasitiki wosinthidwa" kuti muwone zambiri

3. Ndi njira ziti zosinthira pulasitiki?

1. Pali pafupifupi mitundu yotsatirayi:

1) Kulimbikitsanso: Cholinga chakuwonjezera kukhwimitsa ndi kulimba kwa zinthuzo kumatheka mwa kuwonjezera ma fiber kapena ma filla filla monga fiber ya galasi, mpweya wa kaboni, ndi ufa wa mica, monga galasi ya fiber yolimbitsa nayiloni yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito pazida zamagetsi.


2) Kukakamira: Cholinga chokhazikitsa kulimba / mphamvu yamapulasitiki kumatheka powonjezera mphira, zotsekemera za thermoplastic ndi zinthu zina m'mapulasitiki, monga polypropylene yolimba yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pamagalimoto, zida zapanyumba ndi mafakitale.

3) Kuphatikizana: kusakanikirana kosakanikirana kosiyanasiyana kosakwanira kosakanikirana ndi polima kukhala kosakanikirana kocheperako komanso kocheperako kuti mukwaniritse zofunikira zina mwakuthupi ndi makina, mawonekedwe owoneka bwino, ndi mawonekedwe azinthu. Njira yofunikira.

4) Alloy: ofanana ndi kuphatikiza, koma mogwirizana bwino pakati pazinthu, ndikosavuta kupanga dongosolo lofananira, ndi zinthu zina zomwe sizingatheke ndi chinthu chimodzi, monga PC / ABS alloy, kapena PS yosinthidwa PPO, itha kukhala anapeza.

5) Kudzazidwa: Cholinga chothandizira kukonza zinthu zakuthupi kapena makina kapena kuchepetsa ndalama kumatheka powonjezera zowonjezera ku pulasitiki.

6) Zosintha zina: monga kugwiritsa ntchito ma filler othandizira kuti achepetse mphamvu yamagetsi yama plastiki; kuwonjezera kwa ma antioxidants / opepuka opewera kuti nyengo isagwirizane ndi zida; kuwonjezera kwa mitundu ya utoto / utoto kuti musinthe mtundu wazinthuzo, komanso kuwonjezera kwa mafuta amkati / akunja kuti apange zinthuzo.Kusintha magwiridwe antchito a pulasitiki wa semi-crystalline kumayendetsedwa bwino, wothandizila wa nucleating amagwiritsidwa ntchito kusintha mawonekedwe a crystalline a theka-crystalline pulasitiki kukonza makina ndi mawonekedwe ake, ndi zina zotero.

Kuphatikiza pa njira zosinthira pamwambapa, palinso njira zosinthira mapulasitiki pogwiritsa ntchito mankhwala kuti apeze zinthu zina, monga maleic anhydride yolumikizidwa polyolefin, polyethylene crosslinking, komanso kugwiritsa ntchito ma peroxides m'makampani opanga nsalu. onetsani utomoni kuti mukhale ndi zinthu zamagetsi / zopangira fiber, ndi zina zambiri. . Pali zinthu zambiri zosiyana.

Makampaniwa nthawi zambiri amagwiritsa ntchito njira zingapo zosinthira limodzi, monga kuwonjezera mphira ndi othandizira ena pakukonzanso kwamapulasitiki kuti asataye mphamvu zambiri; kapena kusanganikirana pakupanga ma thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV) Ndi kulumikiza kwamankhwala, ndi zina ...

M'malo mwake, chilichonse chopangidwa ndi pulasitiki chimakhala ndi magawo ena okhazikika pamene chimachoka mufakitore kuti chisachotsere nthawi yosungira, mayendedwe ndi kukonza. Chifukwa chake, "mapulasitiki osasinthidwa" mwanjira yokhayokha kulibe. Komabe, m'makampani, utomoni woyambirira womwe umapangidwa muzomera zamankhwala nthawi zambiri umatchedwa "pulasitiki wosasinthika" kapena "utomoni wangwiro."

 
 
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